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This page explains what is meant by a psychiatric diagnosis, methods for making diag-noses, and aspects of diagnostic reliability, validity, and utility. Psychiatric and somatic comorbidities are elucidated.
Source: Anne Farmer, Peter McGuffin, Julie Williams. Measuring Psychopathology. Oxford Univer-sity Press 2002.
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Many structured diagnostic interviews have been tested over the years. The first was the Present State Examination (PSE) in Great Britain in the 1950s that was integrated into the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry.
Source: Mario Incayawar, Ronald Wintrob, Lise Bouchard, Goffredo Bartocci (eds.). Psychiatrists and Traditional Healers. Unwitting Partners in Global Mental Health. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
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Psychosis, a syndrome with many causes, traditionally refers to an impaired ability to distinguish between false and real perceptions and beliefs. Schizophrenia is the prototypical psychotic disorder.
Source: Akiskal HS: The prevalent clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders: beyond DSM-IV. J Clin Psychopharmacol 16:4S-14S, 1996.
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The clinical presentation is identical to schizophrenia, however impairment in function is not a requirement. The required duration of symptoms is of at least a month but less than 6 months.
Source: Akiskal HS, Pinto O: The evolving bipolar spectrum. Prototypes I, II, III, and IV. Psychiatr Clin North Am 22:517-534, vii, 1999.

Psychiatry - Diagnosis & Classification

Cognitive Psychology & Social Cognition

The term Social Cognition describes all abilities necessary to act adequately in a social system. Basically, it is the study of how we process social information, especially its storage, retrieval and application to social situations. Social Cognition is a common skill among various species.

NeuroScientific Models

Brain Anatomy - Human Brain Development - cortical brain

Behavioural and Neuroscientific Methods were invented by Shay M. Anderson and are used to get a better understanding of how our brain3 influences the way we think, feel, and act.....full story



In this section we will first consider how information is stored in synapses and then talk about two regions of the brain that are mainly involved in forming new memories, namely the amygdala and the hippocampus.....full story

Cognition & Language


the interaction between memory and language does not seem very obvious at first, but this interaction is necessary when trying to lead a conversation properly. Memory is the component for storing and retrieving information..... full story

Comprehension & Knowledge Representation

Mood Disorders & Pathogenesis

What is happening inside my head when I listen to a sentence? How do I process written words? This chapter will take a closer look on brain processes concerned with language comprehension.... full story

Present & Future Research

somatoform dissociative disorders

Developing from the information processing approach, present cognitive psychology differs from classical psychological approaches in the methods used as well as in the interdisciplinary connections to other sciences.... full story

Image Of The Week

gut bacteria may play a role in alzheimers To clarify the link between intestinal flora and the occurrence of the disease, the researchers transferred intestinal bacteria from diseased mice to germ-free mice, and discovered that the mice developed more beta-amyloid plaques in the brain compared to if they had received bacteria from healthy mice. image is for illustrative purposes only.

Personality&Eating Disorders & Bulimia Nervosa

Personality&Eating Disorders

Treating psychopathology requires an understanding of personality. Research on the DSM and ICD disorders is making it increasingly clear that....full story

Binge Eating Disorder & Disorders of Childhood And Adolescence

Binge Eating Disorders of childhood and Adolescence

Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by repeated, persistent episodes of binge eating in the absence of the inappropriate compensatory behaviors seen in BN. According to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria....full story